Friday, 26 July 2013

Photography Perspective

Photography Perspective

Link to PictureCorrect Photography Tips

Photography Perspective

Posted: 25 Jul 2013 04:35 PM PDT

After spending the last four years getting more and more into photography, it has only been recently that I’ve felt I have really become confident in my abilities to make use of perspective to get shots that I’m truly proud of. That may seem like a long time, but I guess you could say I’m somewhat of a perfectionist when it comes to critiquing my own work. I have recently been able to capture some images that really emphasize the sense of depth in the scene, and this led me to write this article to share some of those techniques with you.

"Ripple" captured by Andrew Scott (Click Image to See More From Andrew Scott)

“Ripple” captured by Andrew Scott (Click Image to See More From Andrew Scott)

If you look at a photograph, whether it be in print or on a screen, it goes without saying that what you are looking at is a two dimensional representation of a three dimensional scene. The two dimensional image is an illusion, and your mind deciphers the information to determine the ‘depth’. As photographers we can use the concept of perspective to create a sense of depth and scale in photos.

As a photographer, you must be aware of perspective, as it can be a little tricky at times. We must avoid taking pictures that include unintended distortions or that are flat and uninteresting.

Defining Perspective

We can define perspective as the sense of distance between things and their dimensions in relation to the position of the viewer, producing a sense of depth. Here are my most useful tips on how to use perspective:

1. Blocking Parts Of Subjects

It is an obvious statement, but when you see one object partially obstructing your view of another object, your brain tells you that the obstructed object is further away than the object obstructing it. By relating their sizes we can get a sense of the depth. We call this overlap perspective.

2. Relative size

As an object gets smaller, our brains process the information to let us know that the object is further away from the spot where the photo was taken. We already know rough sizes of natural objects, like cars, trees, humans, and houses, so upon seeing a person who is five times taller than a house, our brain lets us know that the person is much closer to us than the other object. Our brain works this out based on familiar objects in relationship to other objects in the picture to get an idea of the distance and depth of relative objects. This is what we refer to as scaling.

We can use some effective photography techniques by placing several objects at different distances from the viewpoint and create an illusion that they are the same distance from the camera as each other. This can produce some peculiar pictures.

Having a single familiar object in a photo allows us to work out the sizes of everything else in the scene in relation to that one familiar object. Think back to all the pictures you’ve seen of fishermen holding their catch smiling at the camera. You’re able to see how large the fish is compared to the sizes of the fisherman’s body. Think about an image of a person standing among huge leaves in the jungle, which are taller than him. Seeing this stimulates our minds, because we’re used to seeing leaves that are smaller than our hands.

"Mission Bay, Auckland" captured by Al Michael Genabe. (Click image to see more from Al Michael Genabe.)

“Mission Bay, Auckland” captured by Al Michael Genabe. (Click image to see more from Al Michael Genabe.)

3. Vanishing Point

The human eye judges distance by looking at how lines and planes converge at a point inside or outside of the picture. This is what we call linear perspective.

Fish eye lenses produce photographs of objects which appear smaller along the edges of the shot than they would look in reality. Conversely, things in the middle of these shots appear a lot bigger than they would in reality.

Parallel lines which move away from the viewpoint in a photo appear to be converging or meeting with each other at a certain point, which is what we call vanishing point. This is very common in photography. A typical example is a photo of railway tracks converging in the distance.

4. The Lens Axis Level

Horizontal lines moving across the lens axis level appear to be straight, while all other horizontal lines above and below this level appear as curved lines. With rectilinear perspective, the straight lines in the frame are reproduced as straight lines in the picture in the same way that we perceive objects in reality. Regular lenses are rectilinear lenses.

5. Perspective Projection Distortion

All pictures could be subject to perspective projection distortion. The fisheye and panoramic lenses produce perspectives which are false and are used to produce interesting effects deliberately.

Wide angle and fisheye lenses can warp lines to create or enhance an artistic flair. "Southwark Cathedral" captured by Luigi Clemente. (Click image to see more from Luigi Clemente.)

Wide angle and fisheye lenses can warp lines to create or enhance an artistic flair. “Southwark Cathedral” captured by Luigi Clemente. (Click image to see more from Luigi Clemente.)

6. Reduced Colour Quality, Definition, and Sharpness

Due to reduced contrast, scattering of light, and other factors, our eyes cannot define objects in the distance as easily. Objects further away are harder to define because of light scattering and reduced contrast, as well as other factors. Knowing this allows our brains to make more sense of distance. In photography, we can take this knowledge and use it to our advantage to create pictures where objects far away have less definition and contrast. We do this by controlling the depth of field. An easy way to do this is by focusing the camera lens slightly shorter than infinity so that the objects furthest away look blurred. This is what gives the viewer a sense of depth and distances of various objects in the picture.

Objects with reduced brightness and contrast make our brains perceive that we are looking at something further away than the brighter, more vivid objects closer to the foreground.

Before you take a photo, you should decide whether you want to emphasize the depth of the scene or not.

7. Depth of Field And Focus

The aperture, focus distance, and focal length can be used to control depth of field. Depth of field (DoF) is used to define an area where objects are sharp in the picture. Objects outside of this zone appear blurred. Many beginners try to make everything in the picture look sharp. They often try to maximize the DoF with smaller apertures. Sometimes this can work well, but it is generally not seen as something more seasoned photographers like to do.

8. Isolating an Object

One way to get nice effects in photography is to isolate an object from its environment. An example is to use a wide lens, enabling you to divide the scene into different layers. Sometimes you will find that the background is unappealing. You can often resolve this by using a tiny DoF so that everything behind the main subject is out of focus. Background elements are now less significant in the picture.

Use depth of field to isolate a subject and create layers in an image. "Unfair Solitude" captured by Krishna Suresh. (Click image to see more from Krishna Suresh.)

Use depth of field to isolate a subject and create layers in an image. “Unfair Solitude” captured by Krishna Suresh. (Click image to see more from Krishna Suresh.)

9. Layers

If you’re interested in landscape photography and enjoy shooting scenes of mountains, a great approach is to use the notion of layers. Mountains are usually the dominating feature of a photo. By including more layers in the foreground and the middle area of depth you can bring your photos to life.

A lack of familiar objects (trees, people, etc.) in a shot makes it hard for the viewer to get a sense of scale. In this instance, you might wait until someone comes walking past to get a shot or ask your buddy to stand in the frame.

Now that we’ve reviewed these tips on working with perspective, let’s look at how we can use it to create some interesting effects. That brings us to the second half of this article.

Forced Perspective Photography Tips

Forced perspective photography is a style that uses optical illusions to make a subject seem to be different sizes and distances from the viewer than it actually is. It can be used to create some rather unusual (and often funny) effects.

So let’s examine a few simple techniques for doing forced perspective photography.

As mentioned, it is possible to deceive the viewer by manipulating perspective. Think about a diamond. Usually with diamonds, size is the most important factor to determine how much they are worth. The cut and clarity are less important to some extent. When we see a photo of a diamond, we need a reference point to get an idea of its size. We can manipulate photos so that the viewer sees the diamond and the other object as being entirely different sizes or virtually the same size.

You will no doubt have seen the usual ‘holding a building’, ‘leaning on a skyscraper’, ‘holding the sun’ types of pictures, but how can we get some more interesting photos using this technique?

Forced perspective photography can create some very unusual photographs. "Take A Seat" captured by Guzzphoto.

Forced perspective photography can create some very unusual photographs. “Take A Seat” captured by Guzzphoto.

Below I have outlined three ways for getting forced perspective shots. Everything else is completely your choice. Use your creativity and ride that sucker like a wave for as long as you can until you have no more ideas left!

Size Altering Forced Perspective Photography

A size altering forced perspective picture is manipulating three things: distance, the line of sight, and the depth of field. First, choose the subject that you want to appear smaller. Position this object further away from the camera than the subject you want to make seem larger. How close or how far away the two subjects are will determine their difference in size. More space is needed for larger size differences between the two objects. It’s therefore a good idea to do this kind of photography outdoors.

Try using a wide angle lens, around 35mm or 24mm. Set your aperture to a large F-stop value. The F-stop will vary depending on the distance between the two objects. It is necessary to find a setting that allows you to get both of your subjects in focus.

After finding the most suitable focus, the next step is to spend some time lining up the two subjects and working out your camera position–the overall alignment of the photo. Let’s pretend you’re taking a shot where the first subject is a person and he or she has a hand on the other subject. For such a photo you would need to take some time to get the alignment as perfect as you can. You may need to take many shots to get the perfect picture. I would recommend you use a tripod to minimize movement and stabilize the camera position. Consider gaps and overlaps between the two subjects. You need to spend time getting everything aligned perfectly. Think about all of the failed attempts you’ve seen by people trying this technique–more than you care to remember, no doubt.

Zero Gravity Forced Perspective Photos

This technique can be achieved fairly easily by placing the camera on its side or upside down. Ask your model to lie on the ground and put his or her feet against a wall to look as though the ground is actually a wall that the model is leaning against. The model could also lean out from doorways and windows to make it seem like he or she is hanging out from them. One thing to be aware of is the direction in which clothes and hair hang. You could have the subject wear a hat or tuck in his or her T-shirt. It also helps if models wear clothing that fits a little tighter than normal.

Another point to remember with this approach is that when you turn the camera on one side, you need to make sure it is perfectly aligned at 90 degrees or 180 degrees with the horizon or the edges of the building and ground to make the illusion works properly.

Merged Subject Forced Perspective Photos

There has been a growing trend recently to show old photos of a scene in front of a recent photo of that same place. This is an example of merged subjects. What you have to do is get the old picture to line up with the size of the current scene. You’ll be holding the old picture relatively close to the camera, so you’ll need a large F-stop with a wide angle lens so that you can put the two pictures in focus.

I hope that reading this has given you a wide range of actionable approaches and provided you with the basics to step outside and start getting some excellent shots by using perspective. Step outside when you can and enjoy yourself! Thanks for reading and please remember some of the tips I made next time you are taking photos.

About the Author:
Luke Walker ( is a photographer from the UK living in Canada.

For Further Training on Trick Perspectives:

Check out Trick Photography and Special Effects by Evan Sharboneau; a very popular instructional eBook that explains how to do the compositional perspectives that capture the most attention and amazement from viewers. It also teaches the basics that are essential before moving onto advanced techniques. With 300+ pages of information and 9 hours of video tutorials, it is very detailed and includes extensive explanations of many complicated methods that are very fun to learn.

It can be found here: Trick Photography and Special Effects

Go to full article: Photography Perspective

What are your thoughts on this article? Join the discussion on Facebook or Google+

Article from: PictureCorrect Photography Tips

Accidental Proposal Photobomber Becomes Famous on the Internet Overnight

Posted: 25 Jul 2013 03:18 PM PDT

That embarrassing moment when you know you’re in the wrong place at the wrong time — we’ve all been there, but rarely does it earn us instant Internet fame. The photo below captures the candid (and hilarious) moment: a young couple at Disneyworld is experiencing a magical moment (pardon the pun, but they are in front of Cinderella’s Castle) that is being captured on camera when a stranger finds himself in the way and nervously, awkwardly tries to duck out of the shot:

disneyworld proposal photobomber

The now-famous photobomber in action (via imgur)

What are the odds of capturing this exact moment with a split-second click of the shutter? His horrified expression, his “just let me sink into a hole in the ground” body language . . . needless to say, the photo has caused quite a splash on social media sites. Not only that, but the photobomber has suddenly become the subject of countless memes people have created, where he interrupts important or historical moments caught on camera.

Some examples include Life Magazine’s famous shot entitled “V-J Day in Times Square” of an American sailor spontaneously kissing a nurse, or the lunar landing, or the Beatle’s iconic Abbey Road album cover, and the list goes on . . .

V-J Day in Times Square: photobombed (via imgur)

The lunar landing: photobombed (via imgur)

Muhammad Ali knockout: photobombed (via imgur)

Elvis concert: photobombed (via imgur)

The fall of the Berlin Wall: photobombed (via imgur)

Tiananmen Square: photobombed (via imgur)

The Beatles at Abbey Road: photobombed (via imgur)

However, despite the interrupted proposal, the couple was able to clear the crowds and re-create a Disney-appropriate (albeit staged) happy ending after all:

via imgur

Go to full article: Accidental Proposal Photobomber Becomes Famous on the Internet Overnight

What are your thoughts on this article? Join the discussion on Facebook or Google+

Article from: PictureCorrect Photography Tips

5 Reasons Why Prime Lenses Are Better Than Zoom Lenses

Posted: 25 Jul 2013 02:56 PM PDT

The debate always rages between photographers – which is better: zoom lenses, or primes? In this video from, photographer Kai W, with the help of his buddy Lok, makes his argument for the benefits of prime lenses (for those of you reading this by email, the video can be seen here):

Of course, every lens has its advantages and its drawbacks, and the appropriate lens depends on the situation, and on your style of shooting. But, while Kai might force his points a little, his arguments in favour of prime lenses hold up:

1. Better optical performance.
Prime lenses give sharper images. This is because zoom lenses have much more glass for the light to travel through in order to reach the sensor; extra elements are required to zoom in and out, and even more are needed to correct the aberrations created by all the extra elements. With the light altered so many times, it is bound to degrade. A prime lens, on the other hand, preserves the integrity of the image by its simple design. Having only one focal length and fewer moving parts, it can be much more precisely calibrated for maximum sharpness.

zoom lenses vs prime lenses

2. Weight and size.
Prime lenses are smaller and lighter. This is for the same reason as above: less elements, less glass. They are therefore cheaper to design and build, making them cheaper to buy, too. As Kai mentions several times, you can often buy two or three prime lenses for the price of one good zoom. However, while the weight and size of a 24mm prime may be less than a 24-70mm, the combined heft of a 24mm, a 50mm, and a 70mm will be much more; your camera may lose weight, but your camera bag probably won’t.

3. Sexy effects.
Kai is pretty much just talking about bokeh with this one (remotes have nothing to do with the lens you choose). Prime lenses are capable of wider apertures than zooms could ever dream of, allowing a razor-thin depth of field and making it easy to blur the background into a smooth, creamy haze.

prime lens bokeh

4. Low light.
For the same reason (a wider maximum aperture), primes perform particularly well in dim conditions. They can get gorgeous pictures in low light without having to lower the shutter speed and risk motion blur or camera shake.

5. Sports.
Zooms are usually the favourite for sports photography, and probably still are for distance sports such as football or soccer. However, in smaller, more intimate games such as the tennis match featured in the video, the ability to use a regular telephoto lens allows Kai a wider maximum aperture, which gets him sharper, clearer pictures, even in a fast-paced indoor setting.

zoom lenses vs prime lenses

Both the guys use a Canon EOS 5D Mk III, but Kai uses prime lenses while Lok uses zooms. Here’s a quick cast of characters, in order of appearance:

Go to full article: 5 Reasons Why Prime Lenses Are Better Than Zoom Lenses

What are your thoughts on this article? Join the discussion on Facebook or Google+

Article from: PictureCorrect Photography Tips

Cityscape Timelapse Photography with an Amazing Mirrored Effect

Posted: 25 Jul 2013 11:27 AM PDT

Imagine taking timelapse videos of 5 major U.S. cities: Chicago, San Francisco, San Diego, Las Vegas and Los Angeles. Now imagine taking these timelapse videos with a kaleidoscope instead of a lens. What you have imagined is Michael Shainblum‘s latest creation, Mirror City. In this video, Shainblum has applied a mirror effect in post-processing to create an abstract but powerful result, it has definitely been hitting a nerve with a quarter of a million views in the last few days (for those of you reading this by email, the timelapse can be seen here):

In photography, we strive to capture what’s real. Photographers want to capture photos that replicate reality just as they see it. But in this pursuit of capturing reality, there is a divide. There are those who believe that images and videos recorded should be unedited and unaltered. Reality is what comes out of the camera. Nothing has been tampered with. No increased saturation, no exaggerated contrast. What you capture is a true replicate of reality. Then there are those who believe that cameras are limited in their ability to capture reality and that alterations should be made in order to recreate the scene in a more realistic manner. Photographers don’t just land on one end or the other of this spectrum either. They are many in between who have certain beliefs on the amount of editing they believe is acceptable.

Even though we are all trying to capture reality, we are also trying to make a statement, send a message, or create a mood. To obtain this goal, we sometimes have to exaggerate the scene to get to what’s real. Take Shainblum’s timelapse for example. Obviously, this is not what reality looks like. Yet Shainblum has captured something more real than what you could do in a normal timelapse. He’s captured the movement, lights, patterns, energy, and chaoticness that comprises a large city. By altering reality, he has made a statement about reality that rings true. The camera motion control in this project was done with a Dynamic Perception rig.

mirror city timelapse symmetry

The mirror effect creates an eye-pleasing symmetry

“When I first started Mirror City, I wanted to create a video that was completely out of the norm. I wanted to showcase something unique and artistic, which takes Timelapse photography into a more abstract direction. Mirror City is a visual story through some of the great American cities: Chicago, San Francisco, San Diego, Las Vegas and Los Angeles. These clips were all processed from their original form, into the kaleidoscopic visuals that you see in this video. Many people visit these large cities every day, and all of these places have been shot and filmed, but I wanted to emulate these urban landscapes in a way that nobody has even seen before. I wanted to put man-made geometric shapes, mixed with elements of color and movement to create less of a structured video, and more of a plethora of visual stimulation.

The video starts off with simple mirrors and recognizable architecture, as the video progresses, so does the visual stimulation, showing the real abstraction of the piece.

I have worked on this piece for an extremely long amount of time. I have spent time mirroring images and videos for the past five years, and I have been working on this specific piece for about four months. I felt it was time to combine Timelapse photography and the simplicity of a kaleidoscope, and create ‘Mirror City’.” -Michael Shainblum

For Further Training on Timelapse Photography:

There is a COMPLETE guide (146 pages) to shooting, processing and rendering time-lapses using a dslr camera. It can be found here: The Timelapse Photography Guide

Go to full article: Cityscape Timelapse Photography with an Amazing Mirrored Effect

What are your thoughts on this article? Join the discussion on Facebook or Google+

Article from: PictureCorrect Photography Tips

No comments:

Post a Comment